Thanks for the advice guys. I appreciate your patience with my obvious ignorance. I'll do that and pull out the recepticle (after turning off the breaker) to make sure it's grounded. I update my post above with a picture that shows a recepticle similar to mine, so I guess it is an older style dryer type, and not a welder plug.
As far as the 10 gauge, my motor says 22amps on it. I figure it'll pull more on start up so I might be a bit close. If I start tripping the breaker, I'll have to upgrade. It's a pretty short run from my sub box (less than 30 feet) so I'm crossing my fingers that the 10 gauge will be enough.