First of all, can you paint it as is? Yes.
The primer breaking through would be no more risk than spot premiering over sanded clear and painting over it.
But the risk even though less over epoxy as you have it now than over sanded clear you still take the chance of the primer ringing around the edges.
Will sealer help? depends on what kind! If a 2K urethane sealer it will help some but you still have a chance that the urethane solvents from the sealer will ring a few of the primer edges.
If you were to take your epoxy and reduce it 10-20 % and spray a sealer coat with it, chances would be 99% in your favor of no ringing of primer, as the solvents are different than the sealer.
My question as I look at your pictures is, do you think your where you need to be? My feeling is as many places you broke through for a good finish you need a couple more coats of primer and a finish sand with 400-600 just to smooth it out.
Hope this helps.