First of all, you got the bobbin case back in correctly, with the tang from the bobbin case trapped under the notch in the throat plate.
Secondly, the thread has to go through the thread guide at the bottom of the needle bar just above the needle so that the thread goes straight up and down.
If the thread is not pulling out of the bobbin case smoothly with just a little resistance, you have something wrong, like the bobbin is in upside down. The thread should come off the bobbin on the top side and unwind as you pull it to the left.
Look at these pictures, and you will see how it should be, including how to pick up the bobbin thread after changing a bobbin.
How are you starting to sew? You either need to hold both the top and bottom thread as you start, or plunge the needle down from the needle up position through the work before you start to sew.
The last thing that could be wrong is that the needle is installed wrong. The groove on the side of the needle faces to the left, and the scarf on the needle faces to the right. "You'd be surprised", my sewing machine repairman told me, "how many machines I get in here that have the needle turned the wrong way."
If any or all of those things aren't correct, you will get a mess like in your pictures.
No one lives forever, the trick is creating something that will.
Last edited by DanTwoLakes; 01-14-2012 at 01:39 PM.